The "By-Laws" establishing the World Association of Copepodologists and governing its operations were originally approved by a majority of the members present at the 3rd International Conference
on Copepoda in 1987. Certain amendments were later approved at the 6th ICOC at Oldenburg in 1996. Additional changes were approved at the Keelung meeting in 2002, the Pattaya meeting in 2008, and
the Seoul meeting in 2014. The latest changes were approved at the e-ICOC in 2022. See "Approved amendments
to the WAC By-Laws" for a summary of all changes.
The current version of the By-Laws is as follows:
Name: The name of the association shall be The World Association of Copepodologists, hereinafter referred to as the WAC.
Purpose: The general objective of the WAC shall be the promotion and support of interest in all aspects of research on Copepoda
Article 1: Membership
Any person interested in any aspect of the study of Copepoda is eligible for
membership of the WAC. Applicants for membership must send an application form
to the General Secretary, and pay the annual dues to the Treasurer.
Article 2: Governing body
The governing body of the WAC shall be the quorum of membership assembled at
business meetings during periodic symposia. Should such meeting be impossible, the membership shall exercise its authority
by online ballot, organized by the Executive
Article 3: Officers
The officers of the WAC shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Past President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, a Local Secretary, a Webmaster and six Council Members, comprising the Executive Council. The term of office of all officers will be coincident with successive meetings of the WAC. The President, Vice-President, General Secretary, Treasurer and Council Members shall be elected by the
membership. The Local Secretary and Webmaster shall be appointed by the new President. After completion of one elected term as President, the President will serve a second term as Past-President. All officers shall be eligible for re-election, but the Vice-President and Council Members shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
Article 4: Executive Council
The Executive Council shall determine general policy on the basis of input from the
membership and shall conduct the business affairs of the WAC. The Executive Council members will assist the Webmaster in maintaining the WAC website and provide advice
on input and structure. The Executive Council is chaired by the President of the WAC. In their absence, the Council is chaired by the Vice-President and in their absence by the General Secretary. The President will organize the Executive Council to have at least one online meeting a year.
Article 5: The Treasurer
The Treasurer shall keep the financial records of the WAC and shall present an annual report at the end of each calendar year to the membership.
Article 6A: The Local Secretary
The Local Secretary shall be appointed by the President during the WAC meeting from among members living in the locality designated as the venue for the next meeting. The Local Secretary shall take a leading role in organizing that meeting, in close cooperation with the President and the Executive Council.
Article 6B: The General Secretary
The General Secretary shall prepare and receive applications for membership and assist the President in running the WAC.
Article 7: Auditors
Two auditors shall be appointed by the new President. The Auditors shall audit the accounts of the Treasurer and report the status of the accounts at the business meeting of the WAC.
Article 8: Nominations
Nominations for any office, with the exception of those of the Local Secretary, Past President and Webmaster, may be made in writing by any member of the WAC in good standing not later than two months in advance of an election.
Self-nominations are encouraged.The proposer must ascertain that each candidate is willing to stand for office and serve if elected. Additional nominations may be made by a Nomination Committee appointed by the Executive Council and during business meetings of the WAC.
Article 9: Elections
Elections shall be conducted by ballot either in person at the business meeting of the WAC
or online, as determined by the Executive Council. Should the interval between meetings exceed
three years, the Executive Council shall arrange an online ballot election. In that case the Executive Council shall announce voting to the membership in the election year. A brief biographical sketch and statement of what the candidate will contribute to WAC shall accompany the ballots. The Executive Council shall appoint a scrutinizing committee of three to four people to count and record votes. The candidates receiving the greatest number of votes shall be elected. When the vote results in a tie, the Executive Council shall vote to resolve it. Should a tie still persist, the President shall cast the deciding vote.
Article 10: Finance
The expenses of the WAC shall be paid from the funds of the WAC, within the limits of its budget. The capital and income of the WAC shall be devoted solely to the furtherance of the objectives of the WAC, as stated in its constitution.
Article 11: Dues
The annual dues shall be fixed by the Executive Council. They shall be payable in the currency used by the treasury of the WAC, by International Money Order or by any other means accepted by the WAC, to the Treasurer. Dues may be paid several years in advance. At the discretion of the Executive Council, dues of some members may be waived or reduced.
Article 12: Meetings
The WAC shall sponsor an international symposium every three years, if possible. The purpose of these conferences shall be the promotion of the Association's objectives. Financial responsibility for the conferences shall rest with the local organizers. The Executive Council must meet (can be virtual) with the Local
Secretary at least two times a year for updates on meeting progress. The Local Secretary must follow the best practices policy of WAC as determined by the Executive Council. They will also provide a platform for the conduct of the Association's business, including nomination and election of officers, adoption of by-laws and amendment of the constitution and/or by-laws. All business decisions shall be taken by the vote of the membership quorum, and can be in person during the business meeting during the ICOC conference, and/or at an online business meeting, at any other time, called at the discretion of the Executive Council.
Article 13: Amendments
The constitution and by-laws of the WAC can be amended only by two-thirds majority of members in good standing present at a business meeting or voting using an online ballot. Amendments may be proposed by any two members in writing to the General Secretary for the appropriate transmission to the membership.
Article 14: Dissolution
In the event that WAC is dissolved for any reason, the surplus funds remaining after payment of debts and liabilities shall be transferred to some institution or organization approved by the Executive Council that has objectives similar to those of the WAC.
Article 15: Monoculus Award
The triennial Monoculus Award may be awarded to scientists for their exceptionally devoted service and contributions to the activities of the World Association of Copepodologists. The award will be presented at the discretion of the Executive Council.
Article 16: The Zbigniew Kabata Student Award
The Zbigniew Kabata Student Award (named after the Founder President of WAC) will be awarded triennially during the International Conference on Copepoda for the best oral presentation given by a
student participant. Free communications from all fields of copepodology will be considered. Students presenting poster contributions
are not eligible recipients for this award. An Award Panel comprising three WAC members in good standing will be appointed by the Executive Council prior to the start of the conference. Judging will be based on a defined list of prescribed criteria drafted by the Executive Council in consultation with the President, Past
-President and Vice-President. The recipient will receive a certificate and a cash prize. In addition, ten smaller awards will be presented for other outstanding research (5 for oral communications and 5 for poster presentations) in the student category.