By-Laws

The "By-Laws" establishing the World Association of Copepodologists and governing its operations were originally approved by a majority of the members present at the 3rd International Conference on Copepoda in 1987. Certain amendments were later approved at the 6th ICOC at Oldenburg in 1996. Changes were approved at the Keelung meeting in 2002 and Pattaya meeting in 2008. The latest changes added a position of Auditor(s) (Article 7), brought up-to-date the process by which one becomes a member (Article 1), and clarified which prositions are elected and which are appointed (Article 3). "Approved amendments to the WAC By-Laws." The current version of the By-Laws is as follows:

Name

  • The name of the association shall be The World Association of Copepodologists, hereinafter referred to as the WAC.

 

Purpose

  • The general objective of the WAC shall be the promotion and support of interest in all aspects of research on Copepoda.

By-Laws Article 1-8

Article 1: Membership

Any person interested in any aspect of the study of Copepoda is eligible for membership of the WAC. Applicants for membership must send an application form by mail to the General Secretary, and pay the annual dues two years in advance to the Treasurer. The Executive Council confers on those who have completed these processes the status of a member.

Article 2: Governing body

The governing body of the WAC shall be the quorum of membership assembled at business meetings during periodic symposia. Should such meetings be impossible, the membership shall exercise its authority by mail ballot, organized by the Executive Council.

Article 3: Officers

The officers of the WAC shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Past President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, a Local Secretary, a Webmaster and six Council Members, comprising the Executive Council. The term of office of all officers will be coincident with the interval between two successive meetings of the WAC. The President, Vice-President, General Secretary, Treasurer and Council Members shall be elected by the membership. The Local Secretary and Webmaster shall be appointed by the new President. After completion of one elected term as President, the President will serve a second term as Past-President. All officers shall be eligible for re-election, but the Vice-President and Council Members shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.

Article 4: Executive Council

The Executive Council shall determine general policy on the basis of input from the membership and shall conduct the business affairs of the WAC. Two Council members will assist the Webmaster in maintaining the WAC website and provide advice on input and structure. This advisory role will rotate annually between the six Council members. The Executive Council is chaired by the President of the WAC. In his absence, the Council is chaired by the Vice-President and in his absence by the General Secretary.

Article 5: The Treasurer

The Treasurer shall keep the financial records of the WAC and shall present an annual report at the end of each calendar year to be included in the first issue of the newsletter of the succeeding year.

Article 6A: The Local Secretary

The Local Secretary shall be appointed by the Executive Council during the WAC meeting from among members living in the locality designated as the venue for the next meeting. The Local Secretary shall take a leading role in organizing that meeting, in close cooperation with the President and the Executive Council.

Article 6B: The General Secretary

The General Secretary shall prepare and receive applications for membership and assist the President in running the WAC.

Article 7: Auditors

Two auditors shall be appointed by the new President. The Auditors shall audit the accounts of the Treasurer and report the status of the accounts at the busniness meeting of the WAC.

Article 8: Nominations

Nominations for any office, with the exception of those of the Local Secretary and Past President, may be made in writing by any two members of the WAC in good standing not later than two months in advance of an election. The proposer must ascertain that each candidate is willing to stand for office and serve if elected. Additional nominations may be made by a Nomination Committee appointed by the Executive Council and during business meetings of the WAC.

By Laws Article 9-15

Article 9:

Elections Elections shall be conducted by direct ballot at the business meetings of the WAC. Should the interval between meetings exceed five years, the Executive Council shall arrange a mail ballot election. In that case the Executive Council shall mail ballots to the membership in an issue of the newsletter before October 1 in the election year. A brief biographical sketch of each candidate shall accompany the ballots. The Executive Council shall appoint a scrutinizing committee of three to count and record votes received by November 1. The candidates receiving the greatest number of votes shall be elected. When the vote results in a tie, the Executive Council shall vote to resolve it. Should a tie still persist, the President shall cast the deciding vote.

Article 10: Finance

The expenses of the WAC shall be paid from the funds of the WAC, within the limits of its budget. The capital and income of the WAC shall be devoted solely to the furtherance of the objectives of the WAC, as stated in its constitution.

Article 11: Dues

The annual dues shall be fixed by the Executive Council. They shall be payable in the currency used by the treasury of the WAC or by International Money Order in advance before January 1 to the Treasurer. Dues may be paid two years in advance. At the discretion of the Executive Council, dues of some members may be waived or reduced.

Article 12: The Zbigniew Kabata Student Award

The Zbigniew Kabata Student Award (named after the Founder President of WAC) will be awarded triennially during the International Conference on Copepoda for the best oral presentation given by a student participant. Free communications from all fields of copepodology will be considered. Students presenting poster contributions are not eligible recipients for this award. An Award Panel comprising three WAC members in good standing will be appointed by the Executive Council prior to the start of the conference. Judging will be based on a defined list of prescribed criteria drafted by the Executive Council in consultation with the President, Past-President and Vice-President. The recipient will receive a certificate and a cash prize. In addition, ten smaller awards will be presented for other outstanding research (5 for oral communications and 5 for poster presentations) in the student category.

Article 13: Meetings

The WAC shall sponsor an international symposium every three years, if possible. The purpose of these conferences shall be the promotion of the Association's objectives. They will also provide a platform for the conduct of the Association's business, including nomination and election of officers, adoption of by-laws and amendment of the constitution and/or by-laws. All business decisions shall be taken by the vote of the membership quorum. Financial responsibility for the conferences shall rest with the local organizers.

Article 14: Amendments

The constitution and by-laws of the WAC can be amended only by two-thirds majority of members in good standing present at a business meeting or voting in a mail ballot. Amendments may be proposed by any two members in writing to the General Secretary for the appropriate transmission to the membership.

Article 15: Dissolution

In the event that WAC is dissolved for any reason, the surplus funds remaining after payment of debts and liabilities shall be transferred to some institution or organization approved by the Executive Council that has objectives similar to those of the WAC. Any outstanding liabilities at dissolution shall be shared equally among the members.

Approved amendments to the WAC By-Laws:

Approved amendments to the WAC By-Laws 17 July 2014, Seoul, Korea

1. Composition of the Executive Council

Following the resignation of the current editor of the Monoculus newsletter there was a general consensus among WAC officers to terminate the production of the newsletter and use the WAC website as the major forum for communication and dissemination of information. The President explained that website design, maintenance and updating will remain the main responsibilities of the Webmaster. The Webmaster will be assisted by two Executive Council Members who will advise on input and (re)structuring of the website. Since this advisory role will rotate annually between Council Members it was recommended to the WAC membership that the Council be enlarged to six officers by adding one additional elected Council Member. The post of Editor will be abolished.

Amendment of “Article 3: Officers”

The officers of the WAC shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Past President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, a Local Secretary, a Webmaster and six Council Members, comprising the Executive Council. The term of office of all officers will be coincident with the interval between two successive meetings of the WAC. The President, Vice-President, General Secretary, Treasurer and Council Members shall be elected by the membership. The Local Secretary and Webmaster shall be appointed by the new President. After completion of one elected term as President, the President will serve a second term as Past-President. All officers shall be eligible for re-election, but the Vice-President and Council Members shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.

Amendment of “Article 4”: Executive Council

The Executive Council shall determine general policy on the basis of input from the membership and shall conduct the business affairs of the WAC. Two Council members will assist the Webmaster in maintaining the WAC website and provide advice on input and structure. This advisory role will rotate annually between the six Council members. The Executive Council is chaired by the President of the WAC. In his absence, the Council is chaired by the Vice-President and in his absence by the General Secretary.

2. The Zbigniew Kabata Student Award

The Executive Council unanimously agreed to institute the Zbigniew Kabata Student Award to honour the late Founder President of WAC (1984–1987) for his exceptionally devoted service to copepodology and his significant contributions to the activities of the WAC. The prestigious prize will be presented to the student giving the best oral presentation. Selection will be based on research quality, originality of the work presented, content clarity, presentation and design. The terms and conditions of the award are clarified in a new Article 12 which will replace the old “Article 12: Newsletter”. Student awards for best oral communications and poster presentations have been awarded before during WAC conferences and the Executive Council recommended the continuation of this tradition, albeit with the caveat that these awards will be considered inferior to the Zbigniew Kabata Student Award.

New “Article 12”:

The Zbigniew Kabata Student AwardThe Zbigniew Kabata Student Award (named after the Founder President of WAC) will be awarded triennially during the International Conference on Copepoda for the best oral presentation given by a student participant. Free communications from all fields of copepodology will be considered. Students presenting poster contributions are not eligible recipients for this award. An Award Panel comprising three WAC members in good standing will be appointed by the Executive Council prior to the start of the conference. Judging will be based on a defined list of prescribed criteria drafted by the Executive Council in consultation with the President, Past-President and Vice-President. The recipient will receive a certificate and a cash prize. In addition, ten smaller awards will be presented for other outstanding research (5 for oral communications and 5 for poster presentations) in the student category.

These amendments to Articles 3 and 4, and replacement if Article 12, of the By-Laws were placed before, and approved by the WAC members at the business meeting held in Seoul on 17 July 2014.

Rony Huys, Past President, WAC

  •  

1. Composition of the Executive Council

The workload of the Executive Council continues to grow rapidly. In addition to conducting normal WAC business affairs, the EC has instituted a system of student grants and prizes, has opened a WAC website, and has made plans for an electronic version of Monoculus. In order to continue to launch new initiatives for the benefit of copepodologists everywhere, we recommended to the WAC membership that the Council be enlarged. We proposed to add one additional elected Council Member and to institute the post of immediate Past President (who will serve for one term after completion of his/her term as president).

The role of Past President provides important continuity between successive Executive Councils. The proposed change, which has been approved during the last business meeting held in Taiwan, required amendment of Article 3 of the WAC By-Laws.

Amendment of "Article 3: Officers"

The officers of the WAC shall be: a President, a Vice-President, a Past President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, a Local Secretary and up to five members, comprising the Executive Council. The term of office of all officers will be coincident with the interval between two successive meetings of the WAC. The Local Secretary will not be an elected officer, but be appointed by the Executive Council. After completion of one elected term as President, the President will serve a second term as Past President. At each meeting half of the slate of officers shall be replaced. All officers of the Executive Council shall be eligible for re-elections.

2. Nominations

The Executive Council wishes to ensure that elections are as open and transparent as possible. The previous version of the By-Laws stated in Article 7, that "Nominations for any office may be made in writing by any two members of the WAC not later than six months in advance of an election." Most previous Executive Councils have experienced difficulty in gaining sufficient nominations in advance and, in practice, it has often been necessary to solicit nominations during the opening few days of each conference. This is allowed under the current By-Laws which also state that "Additional nominations may be made by a Nomination Committee appointed by the Executive Council and during business meetings of the WAC."

The Executive Council hopes that the development of a WAC website will facilitate the nomination process since we will be able to post nominations on the website, as soon as possible after they are received, so that members can view them. We also proposed to reduce the time limit for receipt of posted nominations from six months to two months in advance of an election.

Approved amendment of "Article 7: Nominations."

Nominations for any office, with the exception of those of Local Secretary and Past President, may be made in writing by any two members of the WAC in good standing not later than two months in advance of an election. The proposer must ascertain that each candidate is willing to stand for office and serve if elected. Additional nominations may be made by a Nomination Committee appointed by the Executive Council and during business meetings of the WAC.

These amendments to Articles 3 and 7 of the By-Laws were placed before, and approved by the WAC members at the business meeting held in Taiwan last July.

Geoff Boxshall, Past President, WAC

  •  

Approved amendments to the WAC By-Laws 18 July 2008 in Pattaya, Thailand

1. Proposal addition of an auditor post

The President explained that it is a general practice for an organization such as the WAC to have Auditors, and proposed the creation of this position. The appointment of Auditors is clarified in a new Article 7. He also proposed the amendment of the current Article 3, to clarify which positions are to be elected by members and which are to be appointed by the President.

Amendment of “Article 3: Officers”

The officers of the WAC shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Past President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, a Local Secretary, an Editor, a Webmaster and up to five Council Members, comprising the Executive Council. The term of office of all officers will be coincident with the interval between two successive meetings of the WAC. The President, Vice-President, General Secretary, Treasurer and Council Members shall be elected by the membership. The Local Secretary, Editor and Webmaster shall be appointed by the new President. After completion of one elected term as President, the President will serve a second term as Past President. All officers shall be eligible for re-election, but the Vice-President and Council Members shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.

Amendment of “Article 7: Auditors”

Two Auditors shall be appointed by the new President. The Auditors shall audit the accounts of the Treasurer and report the status of the accounts at the business meeting of the WAC.

(Addition of this Article 7 makes the current Articles 7-14 slide to Articles 8-15)

2. Proposal to amend by-laws about Membership

The President commented that the current process to become a WAC member is out-of-date and needs to be simplified.

Amendment of “Article 1: Membership”

Any person interested in any aspect of the study of Copepoda is eligible for membership in the WAC. Applicants for membership must send an application form by mail to the General Secretary, and pay the annual dues two years in advance to the Treasurer. The Executive Council confers on those who have completed these processes the status of a member.

Shin-ichi Uye, Past President, WAC